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Government Corporations

Department of Energy; and a for-profit college lobbyist who sought to weaken protections for students worked at the U.S. Independent agencies are created by an act of Congress and considered part of the U.S. government, but independent of the executive department. An example of these types of agencies would be NASA.

Transfers pursuant to subparagraph shall be made only from excess unobligated amounts and only to the extent that, as determined by the Secretary, such transfers will not impair the future availability of amounts for the purposes described in subsection . Further, transfers under subparagraph may not exceed one-half of the excess unobligated balance for a year. In addition, transfers under subparagraph may be made only to the extent that the sum of the transfers in a fiscal year and one-half of the unobligated balance at the beginning of that fiscal year for the Special Forfeiture Fund does not exceed $100,000,000. Any payment made under subsection with respect to a seizure or forfeiture of property shall not exceed the value of the property at the time of disposition.

1062, provided that the amendment made by such section is effective Jan. 1, 1982. In subsection , the words “head of each” are added for consistency. In subsection , the words “establishment and” and “in any one bank” are omitted as surplus.

The USPS is the largest government corporation and delivers billions of pieces of mail each year. The agency has always lost money, but Congress has chosen to permit the losses to ensure the system’s continuation. While many criticisms have been leveled at the Postal Service, it has been an effective system of letter and package delivery. 99–571, set out as a note under section 78o–5 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. By statute, both the CPB and the LSC are not-for-profit corporations chartered under the laws of the District of Columbia (47 U.S.C. 396 and 42 U.S.C. 2996). That said, the Cherry Cotton Mills decision indicates that the Supreme Court, not Congress, is the ultimate arbiter of what is and is not a government corporation.

In 2009, the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan formed the Afghan Public Protection Force as a “state owned enterprise” subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior. By presidential decree, the APPF is mandated to replace all non-diplomatic private security companies by 20 March 2013 to become the sole provider of pay-for-service security contracts within Afghanistan. That said, government corporations are covered by some budgetary laws and regulations (e.g., the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993).

Departmental managers who exceed their “service objectives” receive annual bonuses that can be as much as 10 percent of their salary. The city of Phoenix’s experience with garbage collection, described by David Osborne and Ted Gaebler in their forthcoming book, Reinventing Government, illustrates the crucial role played by competition. In 1978, the mayor announced that the city would turn over garbage collection to private firms. The Public Works director insisted that his department be allowed to bid against the private firms, even though the city had promised not to lay off any displaced Public Works employees as a result of contracting out.

Government corporations should not be confused with quasi governmental entities, such as government-sponsored enterprises . A GSE (e.g., Fannie Mae) is a privately owned, federally chartered financial institution with nationwide scope and lending powers that benefits from an implicit federal guarantee to enhance its ability to borrow money. Many government corporations, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority, have been established to exist in perpetuity. Other government corporations, such as the U.S.

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