What Does Centralization In Government Mean?
Part of the discussion at the Constitutional Convention focused on basic governmental structures. The Declaration of Independence rejected the experience of unitary government under a king. The Articles of Confederation promoted a confederation of the states (decentralized power with a weak central government–committee style). The organization’s executives are under tremendous pressure to formulate decisions for the organization, and they lack control over the implementation process. The failure of executives to decentralize the decision-making process adds a lot of work to their desks.
There are supervisors in each department who ensure that the outputs are uniform and of high quality. The use of advanced equipment reduces potential wastage from manual work and also helps guarantee high-quality work. Standardization of work also reduces the replication of tasks that may result in high labor costs. Political Research Quarterly is a refereed scholarly journal publishing original research in all areas of political science. PRQ is published by the University of Utah and is the official journal of the Western Political Science Association. Most issues also feature field essays integrating and summarizing current knowledge in particular research areas.
Advocates of centralization, however, have entirely ignored this aspect of the question. As a matter of fact, they have even defended the extension of state control over local affairs on the ground that it tends to remove the main sources of corruption in municipal politics. This argument was advanced in support of the recent public service commission movement by which cities have throughout the United States been largely deprived of the power to regulate local utilities. The contention that such a transfer of power would eliminate certain sources of corruption in local politics may be admitted, without conceding that it would be beneficial either to the local public or to the state at large.
The preponderance of political influence exercised by capitalistic groups is only in part due to the superior capacity of business men for effective cooperation; it is in large measure due to the highly centralized economic control which has become the rule in capitalistic industries. To some extent, large scale organization may indicate cooperative ability, but the highly centralized control which now prevails in so many industries is no more the fruit of economic cooperation than the highly centralized state is the expression of political democracy. Indeed, cooperation and centralization are inherently opposed, inasmuch as the former implies diffusion of power and would secure the necessary unification of effort without resort to compulsion. This is particularly true where the state legislature is so apportioned as to overrepresent rural at the expense of urban communities. As our state governments are now organized, it is not infrequently the case that cities have very inadequate representation in the state legislature and are, therefore, at a great disadvantage as compared with the rural sections of the state. [in the 21st century, the balance has reversed, so that urban centers effectively set policy for rural communities.
It may be regarded as a well established principle of political science that to ensure a satisfactory and efficient exercise of a given power, it should be lodged in some governmental agency directly responsible to the constituency affected. Here we find the weak point in the policy of centralizing control in the state government. The community or communities affected by its exercise of local authority lack the power to control it.
State attorneys general have little control over their behavior or filing practices, handling mostly training and appeals (Flemming et al. A Government-wide automated airline reservation and ticketing system was proposed to reduce costs by using fewer people. The basis for savings in the proposal is the reduction of personnel currently processing travel reservations, direct labor, and the elimination of indirect labor, such as secretaries, involved in the travel process. The savings in indirect labor would not be realized by eliminating any personnel, but would represent incremental savings of time which could be devoted to more productive functions.
The global trend is toward the more decentralized, participatory patterns of culture, which rekindle local democracy and civic life. The Albany Plan an earlier, pre-independence attempt at joining the colonies into a larger union, had failed in part because the individual colonies were concerned about losing power to another central insitution. As the American Revolution gained momentum, however, many political leaders saw the advantages of a centralized government that could coordinate the Revolutionary War. In June of 1775, the New York provincial Congress sent a plan of union to the Continental Congress, which, like the Albany Plan, continued to recognize the authority of the British Crown. Typically, governments are differentiated based on the decision making the process and how planning activities are carried out.