This particular editorial write-up because of the Editorial Panel

Ramapo Journal Of Law & Society

The USC Journal of Law and Society welcomed Madeline Goossen as the Editor-in-Chief for the Spring 2018 issue. This edition highlighted papers written by students from universities across the country and dealt with topics like human rights in rural Pakistan, the constitutionality of sex offender registrations, and future of content filtering by governments in regards to freedom of expression. Professor Renteln studies international law, human rights, comparative legal systems, Constitutional law and legal and political theory. An expert on cultural rights, including the use of the “cultural defense” in the legal system, Professor Renteln has lectured to judicial organizations and law enforcement groups on this subject.

However, contributions to the journal may be republished elsewhere provided that the place of first publication is cited. I/S publishes three issues per year, both in hard-copy and subscription-based online versions. Because privacy is such a critical topic, and the outlets for published research on this subject so few, I/S commits an entire issue each year to this topic. Papers for the privacy issue will be presented at an annual privacy symposium, organized by the Center for Interdisciplinary Law and Policy Studies and offered under joint sponsorship with the International Association of Privacy Professionals. Canadian Journal of Law and Society / Revue canadienne droit et société seeks to promote and publish original research on law and normative orders understood as social phenomena.

Where the article cites several works by the same author from the same year, these must be distinguished using the letters ‘a’, ‘b’, etc. placed following the year of publication. Where there are three or more authors, only the first-named author should be mentioned in the text, followed by the phrase ‘et al.’. This page should state the title of the paper but make no mention of the name or contact details of the author. Both American English and British English are acceptable, but please ensure that your usage is consistent throughout the text. This means, as a rough guideline, that papers should not exceed 9,000 words . Contributions will be subject to a double blind peer review process, where necessary more than once, involving at least two external referees before the editors take a decision on publication.

We welcome submissions from legal practitioners as well as academics in a wide variety of disciplines in the Humanities, Social Sciences and Law. Buddhism, Law & Societyis the first interdisciplinary academic journal to focus on Buddhist law and the relationship between Buddhism, law, and society. Buddhism and its many social and legal manifestations are a central area of interest for the journal, as are the state’s legal relations to Buddhist actors, institutions and texts. MJLS’ central goal is to imbue legal and legal-adjacent scholarship with the tools of the social sciences and humanities to enrich our understanding of the law and the lawmaking process. The users of Scimago Journal & Country Rank have the possibility to dialogue through comments linked to a specific journal. The purpose is to have a forum in which general doubts about the processes of publication in the journal, experiences and other issues derived from the publication of papers are resolved.

The Journal is interdisciplinary in scope, calling for a variety of perspectives and methods. MJLSpublishes scholarly articles, comments, essays, and online blog posts.MJLSis soliciting content for our first issue. If you are interested in learning more, please view ourinaugural themeandsubmission guidelinespages. This Essay argues that trusts and estates (“T&E”) should prioritize intergenerational economic mobility—the ability of children to move beyond the economic station of their parents—above all other goals. The field’s traditional emphasis on testamentary freedom fosters the stickiness of inequality.

Each year, the JLS identifies a range of issues affecting Detroit and other parts of the world, and then publishes articles that address those issues within their social context. By way of research and scholarship, the JLS aims to connect Detroit to broader national and international discourse, as well as serve as an educational and practical tool for its audience. A leading peer-reviewed journal for research at the intersection of law, health policy, ethics, and medicine.

The Ramapo Journal of Law and Society is an interdisciplinary, online journal devoted to the publication of undergraduate scholarship in Law and Society. The Journal’s mission is to provide a platform to undergraduate students from across disciplines to engage with socio-legal issues in the context of the liberal arts. We understand law and society broadly to include discussions of law in society not just as rigid bodies of rules but as dynamic institutions shaped by historical forces and social imperatives.

This specific editorial write-up through the Editorial Committee

The Journal Of Law In Society

For wealthy settlors, dynasty trusts sequester assets from the nation’s system of taxation and stream of commerce. For low-income decedents, intestacy splinters property rights and inhibits their transfer, especially to nontraditional heirs. Journal Self-citation is defined as the number of citation from a journal citing article to articles published by the same journal. The SJR is a size-independent prestige indicator that ranks journals by their ‘average prestige per article’. For example, if the current year is 2008 and a journal has a 5 year moving wall, articles from the year 2002 are available. Functional cookies help to perform certain functionalities like sharing the content of the website on social media platforms, collect feedbacks, and other third-party features.

The Ramapo Journal of Law and Society is an interdisciplinary, online journal devoted to the publication of undergraduate scholarship in Law and Society. The Journal’s mission is to provide a platform to undergraduate students from across disciplines to engage with socio-legal issues in the context of the liberal arts. We understand law and society broadly to include discussions of law in society not just as rigid bodies of rules but as dynamic institutions shaped by historical forces and social imperatives.

We welcome submissions from legal practitioners as well as academics in a wide variety of disciplines in the Humanities, Social Sciences and Law. Buddhism, Law & Societyis the first interdisciplinary academic journal to focus on Buddhist law and the relationship between Buddhism, law, and society. Buddhism and its many social and legal manifestations are a central area of interest for the journal, as are the state’s legal relations to Buddhist actors, institutions and texts. MJLS’ central goal is to imbue legal and legal-adjacent scholarship with the tools of the social sciences and humanities to enrich our understanding of the law and the lawmaking process. The users of Scimago Journal & Country Rank have the possibility to dialogue through comments linked to a specific journal. The purpose is to have a forum in which general doubts about the processes of publication in the journal, experiences and other issues derived from the publication of papers are resolved.

However, contributions to the journal may be republished elsewhere provided that the place of first publication is cited. I/S publishes three issues per year, both in hard-copy and subscription-based online versions. Because privacy is such a critical topic, and the outlets for published research on this subject so few, I/S commits an entire issue each year to this topic. Papers for the privacy issue will be presented at an annual privacy symposium, organized by the Center for Interdisciplinary Law and Policy Studies and offered under joint sponsorship with the International Association of Privacy Professionals. Canadian Journal of Law and Society / Revue canadienne droit et société seeks to promote and publish original research on law and normative orders understood as social phenomena.

The USC Journal of Law and Society welcomed Madeline Goossen as the Editor-in-Chief for the Spring 2018 issue. This edition highlighted papers written by students from universities across the country and dealt with topics like human rights in rural Pakistan, the constitutionality of sex offender registrations, and future of content filtering by governments in regards to freedom of expression. Professor Renteln studies international law, human rights, comparative legal systems, Constitutional law and legal and political theory. An expert on cultural rights, including the use of the “cultural defense” in the legal system, Professor Renteln has lectured to judicial organizations and law enforcement groups on this subject.

No part of this journal may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission from the authors in writing. The authors who submitted their work to the Ramapo Journal of Law and Society retain all rights to their work. The views expressed by the authors are not necessarily those of the Ramapo College of NJ or the Law and Society program at Ramapo. While the Editorial Board has made every effort to ensure the accuracy of information contained in this journal, we cannot accept responsibility for any errors or omissions contained in the articles.

The journal will include submissions from varied fields of the social sciences and humanities, and hopes to build conversations across disciplines on the topical socio-legal issues of our times. The journal is published by an editorial board of students and faculty representing the Ramapo College of New Jersey undergraduate program in Law and Society, in collaboration with our colleagues at other colleges and universities nationwide. Founded in 1997, The Journal of Law in Society is a student-managed publication of Wayne State University Law School that provides scholarly discourse on the intersection of law and society.

Each year, the JLS identifies a range of issues affecting Detroit and other parts of the world, and then publishes articles that address those issues within their social context. By way of research and scholarship, the JLS aims to connect Detroit to broader national and international discourse, as well as serve as an educational and practical tool for its audience. A leading peer-reviewed journal for research at the intersection of law, health policy, ethics, and medicine.

The following editorial report because of the Editorial Committee

Journals In The Field Of Law And Society

The Ramapo Journal of Law and Society is an interdisciplinary, online journal devoted to the publication of undergraduate scholarship in Law and Society. The Journal’s mission is to provide a platform to undergraduate students from across disciplines to engage with socio-legal issues in the context of the liberal arts. We understand law and society broadly to include discussions of law in society not just as rigid bodies of rules but as dynamic institutions shaped by historical forces and social imperatives.

For wealthy settlors, dynasty trusts sequester assets from the nation’s system of taxation and stream of commerce. For low-income decedents, intestacy splinters property rights and inhibits their transfer, especially to nontraditional heirs. Journal Self-citation is defined as the number of citation from a journal citing article to articles published by the same journal. The SJR is a size-independent prestige indicator that ranks journals by their ‘average prestige per article’. For example, if the current year is 2008 and a journal has a 5 year moving wall, articles from the year 2002 are available. Functional cookies help to perform certain functionalities like sharing the content of the website on social media platforms, collect feedbacks, and other third-party features.

No part of this journal may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission from the authors in writing. The authors who submitted their work to the Ramapo Journal of Law and Society retain all rights to their work. The views expressed by the authors are not necessarily those of the Ramapo College of NJ or the Law and Society program at Ramapo. While the Editorial Board has made every effort to ensure the accuracy of information contained in this journal, we cannot accept responsibility for any errors or omissions contained in the articles.

The USC Journal of Law and Society welcomed Madeline Goossen as the Editor-in-Chief for the Spring 2018 issue. This edition highlighted papers written by students from universities across the country and dealt with topics like human rights in rural Pakistan, the constitutionality of sex offender registrations, and future of content filtering by governments in regards to freedom of expression. Professor Renteln studies international law, human rights, comparative legal systems, Constitutional law and legal and political theory. An expert on cultural rights, including the use of the “cultural defense” in the legal system, Professor Renteln has lectured to judicial organizations and law enforcement groups on this subject.

Under Editor-in-Chief Victoria Ko, the Fall 2007 edition of the Journal published works by four authors on topics such as Makah whaling and Guantanamo Bay. Led by Editor-in-Chief Victoria Ko, the Spring 2008 edition of the Journal features works by two authors on the topics of the politicization of science and privacy in the War on Terror. With topics covering crimes against humanities, unilateral military force in the 21st century, immigration, and the war on terror, this journal provides original and insightful political thought across fields. Please include a cover page with the title of your paper, your full name, your contact information , the name of your university, your major, your expected year of graduation, and a 4-6 sentence abstract. The Journal of Law and Society seeks to publish papers from a wide range of disciplines that reflect diverse viewpoints, and strives to promote greater awareness and understanding of the legal field. The Journal of Law and Society at the University of Southern California is a student-run, interdisciplinary Journal that promotes outstanding undergraduate scholarship.

We welcome submissions from legal practitioners as well as academics in a wide variety of disciplines in the Humanities, Social Sciences and Law. Buddhism, Law & Societyis the first interdisciplinary academic journal to focus on Buddhist law and the relationship between Buddhism, law, and society. Buddhism and its many social and legal manifestations are a central area of interest for the journal, as are the state’s legal relations to Buddhist actors, institutions and texts. MJLS’ central goal is to imbue legal and legal-adjacent scholarship with the tools of the social sciences and humanities to enrich our understanding of the law and the lawmaking process. The users of Scimago Journal & Country Rank have the possibility to dialogue through comments linked to a specific journal. The purpose is to have a forum in which general doubts about the processes of publication in the journal, experiences and other issues derived from the publication of papers are resolved.

It is published by John Wiley & Sons on behalf of the Cardiff School of Law and Politics. Since its founding, the journal’s editor-in-chief has been Philip Thomas . According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2017 impact factor of 0.714, ranking it 101st out of 150 journals in the category “Law” and 107th out of 147 journals in the category “sociology”.

However, contributions to the journal may be republished elsewhere provided that the place of first publication is cited. I/S publishes three issues per year, both in hard-copy and subscription-based online versions. Because privacy is such a critical topic, and the outlets for published research on this subject so few, I/S commits an entire issue each year to this topic. Papers for the privacy issue will be presented at an annual privacy symposium, organized by the Center for Interdisciplinary Law and Policy Studies and offered under joint sponsorship with the International Association of Privacy Professionals. Canadian Journal of Law and Society / Revue canadienne droit et société seeks to promote and publish original research on law and normative orders understood as social phenomena.

The journal will include submissions from varied fields of the social sciences and humanities, and hopes to build conversations across disciplines on the topical socio-legal issues of our times. The journal is published by an editorial board of students and faculty representing the Ramapo College of New Jersey undergraduate program in Law and Society, in collaboration with our colleagues at other colleges and universities nationwide. Founded in 1997, The Journal of Law in Society is a student-managed publication of Wayne State University Law School that provides scholarly discourse on the intersection of law and society.

That editorial content with the Editorial Board

Journal Of Law And Society On Jstor

The Ramapo Journal of Law and Society is an interdisciplinary, online journal devoted to the publication of undergraduate scholarship in Law and Society. The Journal’s mission is to provide a platform to undergraduate students from across disciplines to engage with socio-legal issues in the context of the liberal arts. We understand law and society broadly to include discussions of law in society not just as rigid bodies of rules but as dynamic institutions shaped by historical forces and social imperatives.

We welcome submissions from legal practitioners as well as academics in a wide variety of disciplines in the Humanities, Social Sciences and Law. Buddhism, Law & Societyis the first interdisciplinary academic journal to focus on Buddhist law and the relationship between Buddhism, law, and society. Buddhism and its many social and legal manifestations are a central area of interest for the journal, as are the state’s legal relations to Buddhist actors, institutions and texts. MJLS’ central goal is to imbue legal and legal-adjacent scholarship with the tools of the social sciences and humanities to enrich our understanding of the law and the lawmaking process. The users of Scimago Journal & Country Rank have the possibility to dialogue through comments linked to a specific journal. The purpose is to have a forum in which general doubts about the processes of publication in the journal, experiences and other issues derived from the publication of papers are resolved.

The Journal is interdisciplinary in scope, calling for a variety of perspectives and methods. MJLSpublishes scholarly articles, comments, essays, and online blog posts.MJLSis soliciting content for our first issue. If you are interested in learning more, please view ourinaugural themeandsubmission guidelinespages. This Essay argues that trusts and estates (“T&E”) should prioritize intergenerational economic mobility—the ability of children to move beyond the economic station of their parents—above all other goals. The field’s traditional emphasis on testamentary freedom fosters the stickiness of inequality.

Each year, the JLS identifies a range of issues affecting Detroit and other parts of the world, and then publishes articles that address those issues within their social context. By way of research and scholarship, the JLS aims to connect Detroit to broader national and international discourse, as well as serve as an educational and practical tool for its audience. A leading peer-reviewed journal for research at the intersection of law, health policy, ethics, and medicine.

The Asian Journal of Law and Society adds an increasingly important Asian perspective to global law and society scholarship. Its coverage of Asia is broad and stretches from East Asia, South Asia and South East Asia to Central Asia. A unique combination of a base in Asia and an international editorial team creates a forum for Asian and Western scholars to exchange ideas of interest to Asian scholars and professionals, those working in or on Asia, as well as all working on law and society issues globally. It provides the latest announcements and news in health law, medicine, ethics, public policy, public health, and all of the related disciplines that ASLME covers.

Read by more than 4,500 health care professionals, JLME is the authoritative source for health law teachers, practitioners, policy makers, risk managers, and anyone else concerned with the safe, equitable, and ethical delivery of health care services. Under the direction of new Editor-in-Chief Kyra Schoonover, the USC Journal of Law and Society publishes its ninth volume, containing papers written by students at four different undergraduate institutions. This issue is one of the most diverse yet, with papers covering US foreign policy, second amendment rights, the legal status of professional sports leagues, international torture law, and the intersection of technology and law in the future.

Where the article cites several works by the same author from the same year, these must be distinguished using the letters ‘a’, ‘b’, etc. placed following the year of publication. Where there are three or more authors, only the first-named author should be mentioned in the text, followed by the phrase ‘et al.’. This page should state the title of the paper but make no mention of the name or contact details of the author. Both American English and British English are acceptable, but please ensure that your usage is consistent throughout the text. This means, as a rough guideline, that papers should not exceed 9,000 words . Contributions will be subject to a double blind peer review process, where necessary more than once, involving at least two external referees before the editors take a decision on publication.

The USC Journal of Law and Society welcomed Madeline Goossen as the Editor-in-Chief for the Spring 2018 issue. This edition highlighted papers written by students from universities across the country and dealt with topics like human rights in rural Pakistan, the constitutionality of sex offender registrations, and future of content filtering by governments in regards to freedom of expression. Professor Renteln studies international law, human rights, comparative legal systems, Constitutional law and legal and political theory. An expert on cultural rights, including the use of the “cultural defense” in the legal system, Professor Renteln has lectured to judicial organizations and law enforcement groups on this subject.

However, contributions to the journal may be republished elsewhere provided that the place of first publication is cited. I/S publishes three issues per year, both in hard-copy and subscription-based online versions. Because privacy is such a critical topic, and the outlets for published research on this subject so few, I/S commits an entire issue each year to this topic. Papers for the privacy issue will be presented at an annual privacy symposium, organized by the Center for Interdisciplinary Law and Policy Studies and offered under joint sponsorship with the International Association of Privacy Professionals. Canadian Journal of Law and Society / Revue canadienne droit et société seeks to promote and publish original research on law and normative orders understood as social phenomena.

That editorial write-up by the Editorial Board

Law & Society Journals

The USC Journal of Law and Society welcomed Madeline Goossen as the Editor-in-Chief for the Spring 2018 issue. This edition highlighted papers written by students from universities across the country and dealt with topics like human rights in rural Pakistan, the constitutionality of sex offender registrations, and future of content filtering by governments in regards to freedom of expression. Professor Renteln studies international law, human rights, comparative legal systems, Constitutional law and legal and political theory. An expert on cultural rights, including the use of the “cultural defense” in the legal system, Professor Renteln has lectured to judicial organizations and law enforcement groups on this subject.

We welcome submissions from legal practitioners as well as academics in a wide variety of disciplines in the Humanities, Social Sciences and Law. Buddhism, Law & Societyis the first interdisciplinary academic journal to focus on Buddhist law and the relationship between Buddhism, law, and society. Buddhism and its many social and legal manifestations are a central area of interest for the journal, as are the state’s legal relations to Buddhist actors, institutions and texts. MJLS’ central goal is to imbue legal and legal-adjacent scholarship with the tools of the social sciences and humanities to enrich our understanding of the law and the lawmaking process. The users of Scimago Journal & Country Rank have the possibility to dialogue through comments linked to a specific journal. The purpose is to have a forum in which general doubts about the processes of publication in the journal, experiences and other issues derived from the publication of papers are resolved.

The Ramapo Journal of Law and Society is an interdisciplinary, online journal devoted to the publication of undergraduate scholarship in Law and Society. The Journal’s mission is to provide a platform to undergraduate students from across disciplines to engage with socio-legal issues in the context of the liberal arts. We understand law and society broadly to include discussions of law in society not just as rigid bodies of rules but as dynamic institutions shaped by historical forces and social imperatives.

Read by more than 4,500 health care professionals, JLME is the authoritative source for health law teachers, practitioners, policy makers, risk managers, and anyone else concerned with the safe, equitable, and ethical delivery of health care services. Under the direction of new Editor-in-Chief Kyra Schoonover, the USC Journal of Law and Society publishes its ninth volume, containing papers written by students at four different undergraduate institutions. This issue is one of the most diverse yet, with papers covering US foreign policy, second amendment rights, the legal status of professional sports leagues, international torture law, and the intersection of technology and law in the future.

The Journal is interdisciplinary in scope, calling for a variety of perspectives and methods. MJLSpublishes scholarly articles, comments, essays, and online blog posts.MJLSis soliciting content for our first issue. If you are interested in learning more, please view ourinaugural themeandsubmission guidelinespages. This Essay argues that trusts and estates (“T&E”) should prioritize intergenerational economic mobility—the ability of children to move beyond the economic station of their parents—above all other goals. The field’s traditional emphasis on testamentary freedom fosters the stickiness of inequality.

Led by Editor-in-Chief Steve K. Choi, the Spring 2005 edition of the Journal published works by two authors, focused on treatment programs for adolescents in correctional and detention facilities and retroactivity of the FSIA in Austria v. Altmann. MJLScombines the best elements of peer-reviewed journals and student-run journals to speed up the process by which cutting-edge scholarship can enter scholarly debates and inform the public consciousness. The words justice and judge have similar meanings because they have a common ancestry. They are derived from the same Latin term, jus, which is defined in dictionaries as “right” and “law.” However, those definitions of jus are so broad that they obscure the details of what the term meant when it formed the words that eventually became justice and judge. The etymology of jus reveals the kind of right and law it signified was related to the concepts of restriction and obligation.

Each year, the JLS identifies a range of issues affecting Detroit and other parts of the world, and then publishes articles that address those issues within their social context. By way of research and scholarship, the JLS aims to connect Detroit to broader national and international discourse, as well as serve as an educational and practical tool for its audience. A leading peer-reviewed journal for research at the intersection of law, health policy, ethics, and medicine.

Where the article cites several works by the same author from the same year, these must be distinguished using the letters ‘a’, ‘b’, etc. placed following the year of publication. Where there are three or more authors, only the first-named author should be mentioned in the text, followed by the phrase ‘et al.’. This page should state the title of the paper but make no mention of the name or contact details of the author. Both American English and British English are acceptable, but please ensure that your usage is consistent throughout the text. This means, as a rough guideline, that papers should not exceed 9,000 words . Contributions will be subject to a double blind peer review process, where necessary more than once, involving at least two external referees before the editors take a decision on publication.

The Asian Journal of Law and Society adds an increasingly important Asian perspective to global law and society scholarship. Its coverage of Asia is broad and stretches from East Asia, South Asia and South East Asia to Central Asia. A unique combination of a base in Asia and an international editorial team creates a forum for Asian and Western scholars to exchange ideas of interest to Asian scholars and professionals, those working in or on Asia, as well as all working on law and society issues globally. It provides the latest announcements and news in health law, medicine, ethics, public policy, public health, and all of the related disciplines that ASLME covers.

Digital economy, new business models�

Government Corporations

Department of Energy; and a for-profit college lobbyist who sought to weaken protections for students worked at the U.S. Independent agencies are created by an act of Congress and considered part of the U.S. government, but independent of the executive department. An example of these types of agencies would be NASA.

Transfers pursuant to subparagraph shall be made only from excess unobligated amounts and only to the extent that, as determined by the Secretary, such transfers will not impair the future availability of amounts for the purposes described in subsection . Further, transfers under subparagraph may not exceed one-half of the excess unobligated balance for a year. In addition, transfers under subparagraph may be made only to the extent that the sum of the transfers in a fiscal year and one-half of the unobligated balance at the beginning of that fiscal year for the Special Forfeiture Fund does not exceed $100,000,000. Any payment made under subsection with respect to a seizure or forfeiture of property shall not exceed the value of the property at the time of disposition.

1062, provided that the amendment made by such section is effective Jan. 1, 1982. In subsection , the words “head of each” are added for consistency. In subsection , the words “establishment and” and “in any one bank” are omitted as surplus.

The USPS is the largest government corporation and delivers billions of pieces of mail each year. The agency has always lost money, but Congress has chosen to permit the losses to ensure the system’s continuation. While many criticisms have been leveled at the Postal Service, it has been an effective system of letter and package delivery. 99–571, set out as a note under section 78o–5 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. By statute, both the CPB and the LSC are not-for-profit corporations chartered under the laws of the District of Columbia (47 U.S.C. 396 and 42 U.S.C. 2996). That said, the Cherry Cotton Mills decision indicates that the Supreme Court, not Congress, is the ultimate arbiter of what is and is not a government corporation.

In 2009, the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan formed the Afghan Public Protection Force as a “state owned enterprise” subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior. By presidential decree, the APPF is mandated to replace all non-diplomatic private security companies by 20 March 2013 to become the sole provider of pay-for-service security contracts within Afghanistan. That said, government corporations are covered by some budgetary laws and regulations (e.g., the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993).

Departmental managers who exceed their “service objectives” receive annual bonuses that can be as much as 10 percent of their salary. The city of Phoenix’s experience with garbage collection, described by David Osborne and Ted Gaebler in their forthcoming book, Reinventing Government, illustrates the crucial role played by competition. In 1978, the mayor announced that the city would turn over garbage collection to private firms. The Public Works director insisted that his department be allowed to bid against the private firms, even though the city had promised not to lay off any displaced Public Works employees as a result of contracting out.

Government corporations should not be confused with quasi governmental entities, such as government-sponsored enterprises . A GSE (e.g., Fannie Mae) is a privately owned, federally chartered financial institution with nationwide scope and lending powers that benefits from an implicit federal guarantee to enhance its ability to borrow money. Many government corporations, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority, have been established to exist in perpetuity. Other government corporations, such as the U.S.

The digital economy, start up company models�

Government Corporations

In the first presidential contest after the Citizens United decision, 84 percent of Americans agreed that corporate political spending drowns out the voices of average Americans, and 83 percent believed that corporations and corporate CEOs have too much political power and influence. This aligns with more recent research showing that 84 percent of people think government is benefitting special interests, and 83 percent think government is benefitting big corporations and the wealthy. The Office of the Federal Register maintains a list of current and defunct federal agencies with brief descriptions of their purposes. Government-sponsored enterprises , which are partially funded and regulated by the government and seek to offer credit or loans to the agriculture, home finance and education constituents.

An agency may establish or acquire a corporation to act as an agency only by or under a law of the United States specifically authorizing the action. 103–82 effective Oct. 1, 1993, see section 202 of Pub. 103–82, set out as an Effective Date note under section of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

In subsection , the words “a resident” are substituted for “any such” for clarity. The words “becomes disabled” are substituted for “become insane, or otherwise incapable of acting” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “the surety corporation shall” are substituted for “it shall be the duty of such company to” to eliminate unnecessary words and for consistency. The words “in his place” are omitted as unnecessary. And authenticated” are omitted as surplus. The words “in which a surety bond is to be given” are added for clarity and because of the restatement.

These key criteria—rather than the simple category of ownership—account for the difference in performance and prevent the waste of resources perpetuated by the preceding management. While it is clearly impossible to decouple privatization from the broader social and political issues raised by Butler and Starr, it seems logical that privatization decisions can and should be based primarily on pragmatic analyses of whether agreed-on ends can best be met by public or private providers. The ends need not be limited to efficiency; they need only be clearly specified in advance.

It is not uncommon to see the shares of this type of corporation trade on major stock exchanges, giving individual investors the opportunity to gain exposure to the company and any profit it generates. For those public-private corporations that receive some type of government funding, such subsidiesconsist of regular fund transfers intended to compensate for persistent losses, euphemistically referred to as negative operating surpluses. Contrary to popular opinion, employees of quasi-public corporations do not work for the government. It is significant that the firms that specialize in LBOs have organizational features that differ dramatically from the corporations they acquire.

A governing board may cut or confuse the normal lines of authority from the President or departmental secretary to the corporation’s chief executive officer. With an advisory board, the secretary’s authority to give that officer policy instruction is clear, as is the officer’s right to report directly to the secretary and to work out any exemptions from or qualifications of administration or departmental policies and practices which the corporation requires. The budget process is a useful management tool for planning as well as for maintaining accountability. Regular agencies of the executive branch, with few exceptions, are subject to uniform rules and regulations with respect to the budgets. Both the President and Congress use agency budgets as management tools.

If agreement is not reached, the Secretary may make a written report to the corporation, the President, and Congress on the reasons for the Secretary’s disagreement. In subsection , before clause , the words “at the place or places” and “of the respective corporations” are omitted as surplus. The words “A Government corporation shall” are added for clarity.

Digital financial system, start up business models�

Government Corporations

There are higher upper bounds, bonuses are linked to clearly identified performance measures such as cash flow and debt retirement, and managers have significant equity stakes. 20 billion in state assets, including British Airways, British Telecom, and British Gas. Sales also ran into the billions of dollars in France and Italy, and many less developed countries sold off a large portion of their interests in public enterprises. The agency still has more than 5,000 companies on its books, all looking for buyers. For temporary amendment of section, see § 2 of the Department of Small and Local Business Development Subcontracting Clarification, Benefit Expansion, and Grant-making Authority Temporary Amendment Act of 2007 (D.C. Law 17-96, January 29, 2008, law notification 55 DCR 3403). For temporary amendment of section, see § 2 of the Department of Small and Local Business Development Subcontracting Clarification Temporary Amendment Act of 2006 (D.C. Law , March 6, 2007, law notification 54 DCR 2761).

The corporation and its relations to government cannot be understood in terms of John Locke or Adam Smith or Thomas Jefferson. The tools of the economist are not adequate to the need . Lawyers have scarcely recognized the problem, even though the Supreme Court, which Commons in 1924 called “the first authoritative faculty of political economy in theworld’s history,” in recent years has been chipping away at a theory of group association. The job of the Court, however, is to decide cases, not to produce theory.

Michael Boyle is an experienced financial professional with more than 9 years working with financial planning, derivatives, equities, fixed income, project management, and analytics. The organization is more decentralized, as incentives and ownership substitute for direct supervision from headquarters. Managerial incentives tie pay closely to performance.

108–178, set out as a note under section 5334 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. 107–217, §3, in introductory provisions substituted “sections 3131 and 3133 of title 40” for “the Act of August 24, (40 U.S.C. 270a–270d)” and “section 3133 of title 40” for “section 3 of the Act (40 U.S.C. 270c)”. “eligible obligation” means any security designated as acceptable in lieu of a surety bond by the Secretary of the Treasury.

Provisions relating to statements on internal accounting and administrative control systems are restated in section 3512 and of this title. 104–134 provided that the amendment made by that section was to take effect as of the privatization date . For transitional and savings provisions of Pub. The Secretary shall prescribe by regulation standards for the safeguarding and use of obligations that are government securities described in subparagraph or of section 3 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

Such amount shall be available for any expenses or activities authorized under this section. At the end of fiscal year 1997, and at the end of each fiscal year thereafter, the Secretary shall reserve any amounts that are required to be retained in the Fund to ensure the availability of amounts in the subsequent fiscal year for purposes authorized under subsection . Unobligated balances remaining pursuant to section 4 of shall also be carried forward.

The President shall submit the budget programs submitted by wholly owned Government corporations as part of the budget submitted to Congress under section 1105 of this title. The President thereafter may submit changes in a budget program of a corporation at any time. New Zealanders commonly refer to their state-owned enterprises as “SOEs”, or as “crown entities”.

In clause , the words “actual” and “completed” are omitted as surplus. In clause , the words “as are necessary or desirable”, “types of”, “together with”, and “funds” are omitted as surplus. In clause , the words “as authorized by law” are omitted as surplus. Pakistan has a large list of government owned companies called State owned entities . These played an important role in the development of the business and industry in Pakistan, but recently they are considered responsible for fiscal difficulties of the government due to corruption and bad governance.

The FDIC was founded during the New Deal years following the public run on banks and President Roosevelt’s bank holiday. A sister organization, the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation was exhausted during the 1980s during a series of savings and loan company failures. Afterward, the FDIC began insuring the savings and loan companies. The words “full” and “otherwise . . . funds of any . . . be used to . . . of the offices” are omitted as surplus. The words “except the cost of such audits contracted for and undertaken prior to April 25, 1945” are omitted as executed.

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Government Corporations

That’s an event of considerable significance. In 1996, for instance, the Office of Personnel Management created the United States Investigation Services Corporation as an employee stock-ownership plan , an entry into the quasi government category that sparked debate regarding its status and authority. Provide to all employees on an annual basis, written materials on the applicable PPPs and whistleblower disclosures.

Traditional agencies of the United States receive the preponderance of their financial support from funds appropriated by Congress. Government corporations, on the other hand, generally receive most, if not all, their funds from users of their services. Thus, the latter relationship has a business character in which it is the obligation of the corporate body to provide services as long as the buyers are willing to pay. This being the case, revenues, expenditures, and even personnel will tend to fluctuate according to consumer demand. No two federal government corporations are completely alike.

The purpose of independent agencies and government corporations is to help provide services to the public, handle areas that have become too complex for government to handle and keep the government operating efficiently. Let’s take a closer look at their purpose and how they affect everyday business through our technology company Pear Products. 101–576 amended section generally. Government-owned companies are legally normal companies but mainly or fully national owned. They are expected to be funded by their sales.

The words “wholly owned and mixed-ownership” and “under such conditions as he may determine” are omitted as surplus. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is responsible for the national space program and aerospace research. Founded in 1958, the corporate agency conducts research into civilian and military aerospace systems. From its beginnings during the Kennedy Administration, through the moon landings and the age of space shuttles, NASA has advanced space exploration using manned and unmanned vehicles. “depository institution” has the meaning stated in clauses through of section 19 of the Federal Reserve Act and also includes a foreign bank, an agency or branch of a foreign bank, and a commercial lending company owned or controlled by a foreign bank . 97–452 effective Sept. 13, 1982, see section 2 of Pub.

A GAO report recommended that corporations properly require both subject matter and management oversight, and that the GCCA should be reconstituted to establish in law the characteristics of various types of corporate bodies. The current absence of systematic oversight of corporations as a class runs counter to the intentions of the sponsors of the GCCA. The Bureau of the Budget , predecessor organization to OMB, was instrumental in the passage of the GCCA, and created a separate office to oversee the formation, and monitor the operation, of government corporations on behalf of the President. The location, structure, and governance of government corporations varies greatly. Corporations have been located in executive departments (e.g., the St. Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation in the Department of Transportation), or assigned independent status (e.g., the Export-Import Bank).

107–296, set out as an Effective Date note under section 101 of Title 6, Domestic Security. The Secretary shall make available to the United States Coast Guard, from funds appropriated under subsection in excess of $10,000,000 for a fiscal year, an amount equal to the net proceeds in the Fund derived from seizures by the Coast Guard. Payment of all proper expenses of seizure or the proceedings of forfeiture and sale, including the expenses of detention, inventory, security, maintenance, advertisement, or disposal of the property, and if condemned by a court and a bond for such costs was not given, the costs as taxed by the court.

Any payment made under subparagraph or of subsection with respect to a seizure or a forfeiture of property shall not exceed the value of the property at the time of the seizure. 1Another section 9703 is set out after section 9704 of this title. It is the sense of Congress that each service or thing of value provided by an agency (except a mixed-ownership Government corporation) to a person is to be self-sustaining to the extent possible. This chapter does not prevent a Government pension plan from using the services of an enrolled actuary employed by an agency administering the plan.

A principal intention behind assigning this status and title was to provide considerable insulation from oversight by the central management agencies and the application of the general management laws. Corporations cover the spectrum from such large, well-known corporations as the United States Postal Service and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to such small, low-visibility corporate bodies as the Federal Financing Bank in the Treasury Department and Federal Prison Industries in the Justice Department. While shares of this type of corporation are sold publicly, creating value and profit for shareholders comes second to carrying out its public purpose. The operations of a quasi-public corporation must usually, in some way, contribute to the comfort, convenience, or welfare of the general public.

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Government Corporations

Agencies should also include this information on agency websites. As noted above, OSC has developed materials that can be e-mailed to help agencies fulfill this requirement. A sample letter/email that may be sent to agency employees is availablehere​​.

A few years later, Harold Seidman challenged the view that a board of directors was an essential and necessarily desirable element for a government corporation. Dimock’s view, he asserted, was based on an inappropriate borrowing of state practice by the federal government. State incorporation laws require boards of directors for private corporations to insure representation where ownership is held by more than one party. In government corporations, under this reasoning, because ownership resides in the government alone, there is no inherent need for a board of directors. The federal government does not possess a general incorporation statute as states do. Each government corporation is chartered through an act of Congress.

The purpose of this chapter is to protect the interests of the United States and of the participants and their beneficiaries in Government pension plans by requiring complete disclosure of the financial condition of those plans. A judgment or order of a court entered or made after service of process under this section is as valid as if the corporation were served in the judicial district of the court. If a resident agent is removed, resigns, dies, or becomes disabled, the surety corporation shall appoint another agent as described in this section. 108–178 effective Aug. 21, 2002, see section 5 of Pub.

Government Corporations are subject to 5 U.S.C. § 2302 in cases of alleged prohibited personnel practices described under subsection or section 2302(b​), , , or ; thus, Government Corporations are required to complete 2302 Certification regarding only these applicable subsections. For democracy to work, the rules must be rewritten to prevent corporate capture of government and to create a system that supports fair representation for all Americans. Whether we fight to preserve our free system of self-government for ourselves and posterity is not a choice—it is a moral obligation. Identify the purpose of independent agencies and key agencies in the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission protects consumers against injury or death from products.

In their business operations such programs require greater flexibility than the customary type of appropriations budget ordinarily permits. As a rule, the usefulness of a corporation rests on its ability to deal with the public in a manner employed by private enterprise for similar work. At least three factors may contribute to the interest in government corporations.

104–134, title III, §31001, Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. The board appoints LSC’s president (42 U.S.C. Section 5 or 5 of the Home Owners’ Loan Act of 1933, referred to in subsec.

In subsection , the word “existing” is omitted as surplus. In clause , the word “another” is added for clarity. In clause , the words “contracts or other” and “reference to” are omitted as surplus. 1062, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective Jan. 1, 1982. ” the Rural Telephone Bank until the ownership, control, and operation of the Bank are converted under section 410 of the Rural Electrification Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C. 950). “Government corporation” means a mixed-ownership Government corporation and a wholly owned Government corporation.